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dheiesha's Profile on Ping.sg  Paket Wisata Gunung Krakatau | Gunung Krakatau

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Paket Wisata Gunung Krakatau

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Gunung Krakatau


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Anak Gunung KrakatauMenurut para ahli, pada masa purba terdapat gunung yang sangat besar di kawasan Selat Sunda. Berdasarkan Pustaka Raja Parwa, sebuah teks berbahasa Jawa Kuno, disebutkan bahwa sekitar tahun 416 Masehi terdapat kejadian alam luar biasa yang diakibatkan oleh meletusnya Gunung Batuwara. Menurut pendapat Berend George Escher dan beberapa ahli geologi lainnya, Gunung Batuwara yang dijelaskan dalam Pustaka Raja Parwa tersebut tidak lain adalah Gunung Krakatau Purba. Tinggi Gunung Krakatau Purba mencapai 2000 meter di atas permukaan laut dengan lingkar pantai sekitar 11 Km dan radiusnya mencapai 9 Km2.

Pada tanggal 26-27 Agustus 1883 terjadilah sebuah ledakan dahsyat di Gunung Krakatau Purba. Akibat ledakan tersebut tiga perempat tubuh Gunung Krakatau akhirnya hancur  dan hanya menyisakan sebuah kaldera (kawah besar) di kawasan Selat Sunda. Di tepi kaldera tersebut lalu terbentuk tiga pulau besar, yakni Pulau Rakata, Pulau Sertung, dan Pulau Panjang. Akibat dorongan vulkanik yang muncul dari perut bumi, Pulau Rakata kemudian tumbuh membentuk sebuah gunung berapi yang kemudian dikenal dengan Gunung Rakata. Gunung Rakata tersusun atas batuan basaltik. Akhirnya lama kelamaan Gunung Rakata menyatu dengan Gunung Perbuwatan dan Gunung Danan yang sudah ada sebelum tahun 1883. persatuan ketiga gunung berapi ini lalu membentuk Gunung Krakatau.

Sebelum letusan dahsyat yang terjadi pada tahun 1883, Gunung Krakatau Purba pernah meletus pada tahun 1680. Gunung Perbuwatan juga sempat aktif dan mengeluarkan lava pada tahun 1880 namun tidak sampai meletus. Setelah itu, tidak terjadi lagi peristiwa vulkanik hingga berlangsung hampir 200 tahun lamanya. Namun akhirnya pada tahun 1883 aktifitas vulkanik kembali terjadi di Gunung Krakatau. Ledakan-ledakan kecil mulai terjadi pada tanggal 20 Mei 1883. Ledakan-ledakan kecil ini terus berlanjut dan puncaknya terjadi pada tanggal 26-27 Agustus 1883.

Letusan dahsyat Gunung Krakatau Purba sempat menggemparkan dunia. Menurut pakar Geologi Simon Winchester, letusan yang terjadi pukul 10.20 pada hari Senin 27 Agustus 1883  merupakan ledakan paling besar dengan suara paling keras bahkan masih bisa terdengar hingga radius 4.600 Km dari pusat letusan. Semburan lahan dan abunya mampu mencapai ketinggian hingga 80 Km. Tidak hanya itu, abu letusan Gunung Krakatau Purba menyelimuti bumi selama beberapa tahun sehingga terlihat Benua Eropa dan Amerika Utara. Abu letusan ini menyebabkan cahaya matahari berubah menjadi berwarna biru dan cahaya bulan tampak berwarna jingga.

Letusan Gunung Krakatau Purba menyebabkan terjadinya gelombang tsunami hingga gelombang air laut naik setinggi 40 m. h ampir 36.000 jiwa di 165 desa, baik di Lampung Selatan maupun di Jawa Barat. Kedahsyatan letusan tersebut mampu melenyapkan Gunung Danan dan Gunung Perbuawatan dari muka bumi.

40 tahun kemudian, tepatnya pada tahun 1927, para nelayan yang sedang melaut di kawasan Selat Sunda mendadak terkejut. Mereka dihebohkan dengan kepulan asap hitam yang mengepul dari kaldera bekas letusan Gunung Krakatau Purba. Dua tahun kemudian, yakni tanggal 29 Desember 1929, sebuah dinding kawah tiba-tiba muncul di permukaan laut. Dinding kawah inilah yang kemudian disebut dengan Anak Gunung Krakatau.

Keunikan Gunung Krakatau tidak berhenti sampai di sini. Gunung ini bertambah Ketinggiannya sekitar satu senti setiap harinya. Kini tinggi Anak Gunung Krakatau sudah mencapai 230 meter di atas permukaan laut. Terhitung sejak Desember 1927-Agustus 1930, Gunung Krakatau telah meletus sebanyak 16 kali, 43 kali selama periode 1931-1960, dan 13 kali sejak tahun 1961-sekarang.

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